Criterion 6: Citizen/Customer-oriented Results

The term citizen/customer reflects the complex relationship between the administration and its public. The person to whom the services are addressed has to be considered as a citizen, a member of a democratic society with rights and duties (e.g. tax payer, political actor, etc.). The person should also be considered as a customer, not only in the context of service delivery where he adopts the position of a beneficiary of services, but also in a context where he has to fulfil duties (taxpayer or payment of fines), where he has the right to be treated with fairness and courtesy without neglecting the interests of the organisation. Since the two cases are not always clearly separable, this complex relationship will be described as a citizen/customer relationship. Citizens/customers are the recipients or beneficiaries of the activity, products or services of the public sector organisations. Citizens/customers need to be defined, but not necessarily restricted to only the primary users of the services provided.

Criterion 6 describes the results the organisation is achieving in relation to the satisfaction of its citizens/customers with the organisation and the products or services it provides. CAF distinguishes between perception and performance results. It is important for all kinds of public sector organisations to directly measure the satisfaction of their citizens/customers (perception results). Furthermore performance results have to be measured. Here, additional information about the citizens’ and customers’ satisfaction is collected by measuring internal indicators. Working on increasing the results of internal indicators should lead to higher satisfaction of the customers/citizens.


Sub-criterion 6.1

Perception measurements

The direct measurement of the satisfaction or perception of the citizens and customers is of essential importance. Measuring the perception of citizens and customers means directly asking them and getting direct feedback and information on different aspects of the organisation’s performance. Following the principle of evidence-based management, it is not the organisation making assumptions on the satisfaction level; instead, direct information from the customer/citizen themselves provides the objective information. In most cases this is done by customer or citizen surveys. Complementary tools such as focus groups or users panels are also used. This sub-criterion assesses whether the organisation performs these measurements and shows the results of these  measurements.


Result of perception measurement regarding:

  1. The overall image of the organisation and the public reputation (e.g. friendliness, fairness of treatment, openness, clarity of the provided information, the employees’ willingness to listen, the reception, flexibility and ability to address individual solutions, etc.).
  2. Involvement and participation of the citizen/ customer in the working and decisionmaking process of the organisation.
  3. Accessibility (e.g. accessibility with public transport, disabled access, opening and waiting times, one-stop-shops, cost of the services, etc.).
  4. Transparency (e.g. on functioning of the organisation, of the explanation of the applicable legislation, and decision-making processes).
  5. Products and services (e.g. quality, reliability, compliance with quality standards, processing/ providing time, quality of advice given to the customers/citizens, environmental approach).
  6. The organisation’s differentiation of services related to different needs of customers (e.g. gender, age, etc.).
  7. The available information: quantity, quality, reliability, transparency, readability, appropriateness for the target group, etc.
  8. The good receipt of the information by the citizen/customer.
  9. The frequency of citizens/customers opinion survey on the organisation.
  10. Level of public trust towards the organisation and its products/services.


Sub-criterion 6.2

Performance measurements

Besides the direct measurement of citizen and customer perception, the quality of services delivered to citizens and customers can be measured by internal indicators. Here, measurable results of internal management indicators (e.g. processing time, waiting time, number of complaints) are used. Based on these measurements lessons about the quality of the service delivery can be learnt. CAF gives an overview of examples for internal indicators which measure the performance in order to fulfil the needs and expectations of customers and citizens.


Results regarding the involvement

  1. Extent of involvement of stakeholders in the design and the delivery of services and products and/or the design of decisionmaking processes.
  2. Number of suggestions received and implemented.
  3. Extent of use of new and innovative ways in dealing with citizens/customers.
  4. Indicators of complying with gender aspects and cultural and social diversity regarding citizens/customers.
  5. Extent of regular reviews jointly with the stakeholders to monitor their changing needs and the degree to which they are satisfied.

Results of accessibility of the organisation

  1. Opening hours of the different services (departments).
  2. Waiting time Handling/processing time of service delivery.
  3. Cost price of the services.
  4. Availability of information concerning management responsibilities of the different services.

Results regarding the transparency of the delivery of services and products

  1. Number of information channels and their efficiency.
  2. Availability and accuracy of the information.
  3. Availability of performance goals and results of the organisation.
  4. Number of interventions by the ombudsman.
  5. Extent of efforts to improve availability, accuracy and transparency of information.

Results of indicators regarding the quality of products and service delivery

  1. Number and processing time of complaints.
  2. Number of files returned back with errors and/or cases requiring repeated processing/ compensation.
  3. Adherence to published service standards (e.g. legislative requirements).